Using sea water as a cooling media in industries is very affordable. Thus, numerous industrial units near are built near sea.
However, sea water is full of micro-organisms which stick to the pipe walls and turn into a sticky and sluggish layer. This layer, not only causes corrosion, but also reduces heat transfer and as a result cooling efficiency is decreased dramatically.
Sea water is alkali (pH higher than 8-8.5), chlorine is not able to prevent formation of the biofilm. However, chlorine dioxide can effectively prevent formation of the biofilm.
Moreover, chlorine dioxide is capable of removing the formed biofilm.